Types

There are 5 main Gynaecological cancers. For information on each type of gynaecological cancer, please follow the links below:

Ovarian

Most ovarian cancer are epithelial cancers. This term means that the cancer has started in the cells that cover the surface of the ovary.

There are two common epithelial cancers of the ovaries :

  • Serous 
  • Endometriod 

Less common types of epithelial ovarian cancer are:

  • Mucinous
  • Germ Cell Tumours (Ovarian Teratomas)
  • Clear cell
  • Undifferentiated or unclassifiable

Vulval 

There are six types of vulval cancer:

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This is the most common type of vulval cancer. It develops in the skin of the vulva from cells called squamous cells. This type of cancer usually takes years to develop.
  • Verrucous Carcinoma: This is a slow growing of squamous cell carcinoma which often looks like a large wart.
  • Vulval Melanoma: This develops from the pigment-producing cells that give the skin its colour. This is the second most common type of vulval cancer.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This develops from cells that line the glands in the vulval skin.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma: This is found in the deepest layer of the skin of the vulva. It is generally slow growing and almost never spreads from the vulva.
  • Sarcomas: This develops from cells in tissue such as muscle or fat under the skin. They tend to grow more quickly than other types of vulval cancer.

Cervical  

There are two main types of cervical cancer:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer. It develops from the flat cells which cover the outer surface of the cervix at the top of the vagina.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This type develops from the glandular cells which line the cervical canal (endocervix). As adenocarcinoma starts in the cervical canal it can be more difficult to detect with cervical screening tests.
There are other, less common types of cancer of the cervix known as:
  • Adenosquamous carcinoma
  • Clear-cell carcinoma
  • Small-cell carcinoma

Womb 

Womb cancer is also known as endometrial cancer and arises in the lining of the womb.

There are four main types of womb cancer:

  • Endometrioid
  • Serous
  • Sarcomas
  • Clear cell

Vaginal

There are two main types of primary vaginal cancers and they are named after the cells from which they develop:

Squamous cell: The most common type of vaginal cancer is called squamous cell. This is usually found in the upper part of the vagina, and most commonly affects women between the aged 50–70.

Adenocarcinoma: This type of vaginal cancer usually affects women under 20, but may occasionally occur in other age groups.

Other very rare types of vaginal cancer include:

  • Melanoma
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Sarcoma
  • Lymphoma
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